Category Archives for Water Treatment

Process Water

Generally, process water is not recycled directly back to cooling towers without considerable pretreatment. Process waters include desalter water, stripped sour water and process wash water. Desalter water and process wash waters are not considered suitable for reuse as cooling … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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Municipal Secondary Treated Effluent

The use of municipal secondary-treated waste water may increase biological fouling, calcium phosphate scale, and foam. This could result in substantial increase in treatment chemical costs and would require efficient control of operating parameters. Because of high orthophosphate levels in … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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Treated Plant Waste Water

The use of treated plant waste water for cooling tower makeup conserves water and reduces the net effluent discharge. The characteristics of the treated water, e.g., total dissolved solids, biological oxygen demand (BOD), metal, etc., will determine its potential for … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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Boiler Blowdown or Concentrated Effluent from Reverse Osmosis Water Treater

Cascading of these waters as cooling tower makeup should be considered. Boiler blowdown is low in hardness and relatively low in dissolved solids. However, boiler blowdown will be significantly hotter than return cooling water, so the tower may need additional … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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Water Treatment Corrosion Monitoring

Test Exchangers Various water treatment manufacturers offer test heat exchangers for evaluation of corrosion control. The exchangers are offered free if corrosion inhibitors are purchased. Although exchangers do show relative corrosion rates as water treating conditions change, they are not … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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Water Treatment Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitor Alternatives

The evaluation of alternative corrosion inhibitors should include: 1. Metals to be protected 2. If any chromium is used, the desired discharge levels in the effluent 3. Relative performance of the inhibitor 4. Quality of makeup water 5. Comparative costs … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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Water Treatment Corrosion Control

The corrosion inhibitors most frequently used in cooling water systems are classified as passivators. These inhibitors passivate the metal by encouraging a tenacious metal oxide or other film to form on the metal surfaces. Combinations of chromate, polyphosphates, and zinc … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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Water Treatment Nonoxidizing Biocide

Nonoxidizing biocides are mainly of two types: 1. Enzyme poisons, such as methylene bisthiocyanate, acrolein, and metal salts (copper sulfate). 2. Toxicants that disrupt the cell wall and cytoplasm, such as chlorophenols, dodecylguanidine hydrochloride and quaternary ammonium salts. These compounds … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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Water Treatment Chlorine Injection

From a cost standpoint, the least expensive oxidizing biocide is gaseous chlorine fed to the circulating water system by means of a chlorinator. Chlorine should be considered for all systems except where the chlorine demand may be abnormally high due … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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Water Treatment Use of Antifoulants and Dispersants to Control Fouling

For detailed information on fouling, antifoulants, and dispersements, see the Power Magazine Special Report, “Cooling-Water Treatment for Control of Scaling Fouling, Corrosion,” in Appendix J. There is, however, mixed opinion as to the effectiveness of these chemicals. Heat Transfer Research … Continue reading

09. April 2018 by Ben
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