Category Archives for Relief Systems

Flares Sizing – Potential Hazardous Plume Considerations

When the potential exists for flare gas to contain toxic compounds (e.g., H2S, NH3), the possibility of loss of ignition of the flare stream requires consideration. In most such cases, an atmospheric dispersion analysis is performed for the potentially unburned … Continue reading

17. May 2018 by Juan
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Flares Sizing – Flare Height

Height determination for an elevated flare stack is not a precise science. The stack height is selected to reduce the radiant heat intensity at ground level to desired safe limits for personnel and equipment. The Company uses the method outlined … Continue reading

17. May 2018 by Juan
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Flares Smokeless Operation Requirements

For environmental and public relations reasons, flares should generally be designed to operate in a smokeless regime. However, as smokeless operation at the highest potential flow rates can be difficult to achieve, a design maximum flow rate for which smokeless … Continue reading

17. May 2018 by Juan
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Control of Flare Steam Injection

Automatic control of steam injection is difficult because the volume of relief gas is not easily measured because of the wide rangeability (more than 100 to 1). Even if the volume of relief gas is known, molecular weight and composition … Continue reading

17. May 2018 by Juan
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Flare Steam Injection

Smoke is unburned carbon from incomplete hydrocarbon combustion. The oxygen in the air first combines with hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon molecules, freeing carbon atoms for secondary reactions. If the hydrocarbon molecules crack at the high combustion temperature, then more … Continue reading

17. May 2018 by Juan
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Flare Combustion Tips

Combustion tips are available from a number of makers. They are designed to provide smokeless flaring up to some fraction of the maximum relief capacity of the relief system. Steam injection, when available, is used to suppress smoke with required … Continue reading

17. May 2018 by Juan
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Back-flow Prevention Systems – Liquid Seals

Liquid seals are often installed immediately upstream of a flare stack to maintain a positive pressure in the collection system and to provide protection against flashback into the flare header. Figure 1200-39 is a diagram of a typical flare seal … Continue reading

17. May 2018 by Juan
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Back-flow Prevention Systems – Seals

Purge Reduction Seals A flare tip is normally specified with a purge reduction seal located immediately below the tip. This seal may be of either the molecular or the velocity design. A gas seal (molecular seal) can replace the liquid … Continue reading

17. May 2018 by Juan
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Back-flow Prevention Systems – Purge Gas

Typically, flare headers are continuously purged with a flow of non-oxidizing gas compatible with the fluids expected to be in the header and with the materials of construction of the header and all component equipment. The purge gas should normally … Continue reading

30. April 2018 by Juan
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Disposal System Back-flow Prevention Systems

Disposal systems should include equipment to prevent the infiltration of hazardous levels of air. This objective is normally achieved by using a flow of purge gas through the entire disposal system. The required flow rate of purge gas can be … Continue reading

30. April 2018 by Juan
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