Category Archives for Refrigerants

Ammonia VS HCFC-22

The decision to be made in the next several decades by designers and owners of industrial refrigeration plants in the choice of refrigerant is primarily between ammonia and HCFC-22. The decision may be a quick one if ammonia is not … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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Safety Of Refrigerants

Some factors on which the safety of refrigerants are judged include toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and flammability. Recommendations as to where various refrigerants should and should not be used and specification of toxic levels and flammability limits are available from several … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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Refrigerant Cycle Performance

Various thermodynamic properties of a refrigerant combine when operating within a cycle to influence the performance. Tables 12.5 and 12.6 show several important quantities that give added insight into the choice of refrigerant. To provide a common basis of comparison, … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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Low Temperature Halocarbon Refrigerants

The halocarbon in the high-pressure group of refrigerants in Fig.12.5, R-23, is a candidate for the low-temperature circuit of the cascade system which will be examined in greater detail in Chapter 21. R-23 may replace R-503, which was a popular … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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Refrigerant Physical Properties

Several important physical properties of the refrigerants studied in this chapter are listed in Table 12.4. Some of these properties reinforce the distinction between low-temperature and moderate-temperature refrigerants that is apparent from the saturation pressures shown in Figure 12.5. The … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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Refrigerant Saturation Pressures And Temperatures

The magnitudes of the evaporating and condensing pressures at the expected operating temperatures strongly affect the choice of refrigerant. Figure 12.5 shows the saturation pressures as functions of temperature for most of the refrigerants that are listed in Table 12.2. … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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Azeotropic Mixtures

An azeotropic mixture, in contrast to the zeotropic mixture, has a temperature-pressure-concentration diagram where the saturated vapor and saturated liquid lines coincide at a range of concentrations, as shown in Fig. 12.3. At the point or region where the saturated … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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Refrigerant Blends

A summary statement of the position of industrial refrigeration with respect to refrigerants is that ammonia is likely to continue to be dominant in the field, but there is a need for refrigerants of low toxicity to supplement ammonia and … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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Numerical Designation Of Refrigerants

Standard 34–92 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers has categorized and numbered all refrigerants, including air and water. The industrial refrigerants, including those in current as well as future possible use, fall into one of five … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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The Ozone Layer And Global Warming

The molecules of refrigerants in the halocarbon refrigerant family are made up of some or all of the following elements: carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine. Examples of the molecular structures of several classes of halocarbons are shown in Fig. 12.1. … Continue reading

16. May 2018 by Jim
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