Condenser

The change from liquid phase to vapor phase is called vaporization and the reverse phase transfer is condensation. The change from liquid to vapor or vapor to liquid occurs at one temperature (called saturation or equilibrium temperature) for a pure fluid compound at a given pressure. The industrial practice of vaporization and condensation occurs at almost constant pressure; therefore the phase change occurs isothermally.

Condensation occurs by two different physical mechanisms i.e. drop-wise condensation and film condensation.

The nature of the condensation depends upon whether the condensate (liquid formed from vapor) wets or does not wet the solid surface. If the condensate wets the surface and flows on the surface in the form of a film, it is called film condensation. When the condensate does not wet the solid surface and the condensate is accumulated in the form of droplets, is drop-wise condensation. Heat transfer coefficient is about 4 to 8 times higher for drop wise condensation. The condensate forms a liquid film on the bare-surface in case of film condensation. The heat transfer coefficient is lower for film condensation due to the resistance of this liquid film.

Dropwise condensation occurs usually on new, clean and polished surfaces. The heat exchanger used for condensation is called condenser. In industrial condensers, film condensation normally occurs.