Shell is the container for the shell fluid and the tube bundle is placed inside the shell. Shell diameter should be selected in such a way to give a close fit of the tube bundle. The clearance between the tube bundle and inner shell wall depends on the type of exchanger (; page 647). Shells are usually fabricated from standard steel pipe with satisfactory corrosion allowance. The shell thickness of 3/8 inch for the shell ID of 12-24 inch can be satisfactorily used up to 300 psi of operating pressure.