The tubes are fixed with tube sheet that form the barrier between the tube and shell fluids. The tubes can be fixed with the tube sheet using ferrule and a soft metal packing ring. The tubes are attached to tube sheet with two or more grooves in the tube sheet wall by „tube rolling‟. The tube metal is forced to move into the grooves forming an excellent tight seal. This is the most common type of fixing arrangement in large industrial exchangers. The tube sheet thickness should be greater than the tube outside diameter to make a good seal. The recommended standards (IS:4503 or TEMA) should be followed to select the minimum tube sheet thickness.