Treated Cooling Water

Heat exchangers in treated cooling water service should be designed and operated consistent with the water treatment. The temperature limits and thermal resistance of corrosion…

Tube Vibration

This section discusses tube vibration mechanisms, tube failure locations, and design criteria to prevent failures. Damaging heat exchanger tube vibration mechanisms are vortex shedding and…

Fouling

This section discusses principal fouling mechanisms, and services and conditions where they may occur. In most cases, fouling conditions can be avoided by appropriate process…

Flow Splitting

Flow splitting is sometimes a problem in networks and in multiple bundle services with parallel branches. Flow splitting can always be controlled with valves, but…

Condensing

This section discusses the principles of process condensation and gives rules-ofthumb for steam condensation. Condensing surfaces are below the dewpoint temperature of the condensing fluid…

Boiling

Pool boiling data are the foundation for correlating the performance of commercial boiling equipment. A typical pool boiling curve, from the HTRI Design Manual, is…